Thursday, 28 June 2012
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1. classify principal economy executant in indonesia economics:
1. consumption household /rtk
consumption household is economy unit smallest. consumption household owner or penyedia service from various factors of production. factors of production that has by household will be used by will company to will produce goods or service. also will use goods and service that produced to company to fulfill the need.
consumption household character:
2) supplier or factors of production owner
factors of production there 4 kinds that is:
from fourth factors of production that belong original factors of production that is nature and labour while descendant factors of production consists of capital and skill
reply service from factors of production that is:
1) nature: ground-rent
2) labour: wage/salary
3) capital: capital flower
4) skill/skill: profit
2. household production/rtp/companies
company a organization that founded by one or several one who aim to produce goods and service that wanted society. company to be place go on it production.
character companies as economy executant that is:
1) producers: produce goods and service
2) factors of production user: use factors of production to produce goods and service
3) development agency: help government with run development activity
government mencangkup all institutions or government body that has authority and task regulates economy. and government jumps down direct in economic activity passes to company country (bumn/bumd).
government character as economy executant that is:
1) regulator: regulate country economics so that created economy stability so that harmless society
a) economy arrangement directly
example: licensing, environment control, tax payment, rate cost regulation, regulations abolition that evaluated to retard economy growth
b) economy arrangement indirectly
example: incentive gift for producers to produces certain goods, government calling so that conglomerate extradites 2,5% the profit to mengentas poverty
2) consumer: want goods and service in run the task
3) producers: produce goods and service passes state-owned corporation (bumn and bumd)
regulation: economic activity arrangement directly, so that government can configuring economics life in such a manner so that there is no one side even also that harmed
deregulation: regulation abolition efforts that evaluated to retard economics
4. abroad society
abroad society part as economy executant:
2) labour transfer
3) capital planting
4) loan gift
5) aid gift
2. part 3 formal effort sectors in indonesia economics
1. publik ownwrship corporation (bumn)
as realization from paragraph 33 article 2 and 3 constitutions 1945 so mendirikanlah publik ownwrship corporation (bumn). bumn bada effort the capital a part big/entire government/country property. central government property corporation is called bumn, while corporation local government property the capital is called bumd(badan region property effort).
bumn and bumd founded utuk serve public interest and look for profit in ranka fill public treasury.
based on uu ri no 9 year 1969 company country diversifieds to be 3 kinds that is:
a) company government office (perjan)
be state-owned corporation that active in service. tujua to serve vast general/society importance (public service). be part from a government departement at lead by a head bersesatus civil public servant
? aim to serve society
? leadership and employee bersetatus civil
? be part from government departement
? get country facilities
? led by a head that direct to the higher in this case minister/director general head departem concerned
example perjan: company railroads and mortgaging government office
since year 1991, company to change status is public company, pjka be perumka and company mortgaging government office turns into perum mortgaging
b) public company (perum)
perum be state-owned corporation the aim besides to serve also permitted mencaei profit
? aim to serve public interest, but permitted to look for profit with efficient work principle and efekifitas
? bersetatus corporate body that regulated based on uu
? active in us aim for mencarilaba/profit.
? the aim more besar(dominan) to look for profit
? usually formed pt
? a large part entire government property the capitals in the form of shares, but make possible capital ownership cooperation with other party
? government as biggest stockholder (minimal 51%)
? can not country facilities peculiarly
? led management council
? leadership and employee bersetatus as private official
example companies formed pt:
• pt indonesia post
• pt pelni
• pt estate
• pt gia (indonesia eagle airways)
• pt pln (company country electricity)
• pt btn (country savings bank)
publik ownwrship corporation that managed by local government is called region property corporation (bumd). company region company that founded by local government the capital a large part / entire local government property.
opinion aim companies region for development and economy potential development at region concerned.
example companies region among others: company drinking water (pdam) and local development bank (bpd)
as corporation that has by country, bumn has important role in economics as follows:
? bumn at intended can managed and use vital production branches to fulfill kebutuan masyrakat according to maksiml by capainya kesejateran dn people welfare in general.
? government passes to company country (bumr)dapat serve society according to maximal
? company country (bumn)diharap be one of [the] bational income source that come from income non tax
? bumn supposed can prepare employment sehingg can help to overcome unemployment
? bumn that do export activity, import can menmbah pengasilan defisa for country
? bumn at intended can speed up pertumbuan national economy
2. private property corporation (bums)
bums/company suasta company that given authority to conduct economic activity outside company country and cooperation
part bums in bational economy
? dig and memfaat potential economy not yet worked on by company country
? help government memenui kebutuan masyrakat
? increase acceptance defisa country from company suasta that do export activity, import
? help to speed up pertumbuan economy
? increase employment in the effort overcome unemployment
privat enterprise forms
privat enterprise in run usahan can formed limited liability, partnerships komanditer, partnerships fima, and individual proprietorship
function and indonesia cooperation character menurutuu no25 year 1992 section 4 as follows:
? build and develop potential and member economy ability especially and society in general to increase kesejateraan economy and sosisl
? impersonate with effectively dealam efforts heightens human life quality and society
? memperkokoh people economics as base strength and bational economy endurance with cooperation as soko the teacher
? out for mewujut and develop bational economy that be uasaha with by virtue of kinship basis and demokrai economy
3. identify manner establishes and mengelo bums!
our the example wants to establish p. t
establish pt must with bill of establishment company that published notary public and menyahkan olehmenteri judicature, then pt must registered at court negerisetempat and announced in official gazette. next explanation cuts to establish pt:
1. opinion aim pt included in association of not oppose against public interest.
2. name and position place pt be clear and berkedudu at indonesia area.
3. capital total that wanted and price every share sheet must included in association of.
4. share total must menyanggupi or sold minimal 20% from share total that planned and 10% from capital must menyetor in the form of cash into money supply has companied.
manner managed it:
1. organization existence companies clear and good for example:
meeting existence umm pemegan share
board of comisioner existence
2. existence balance (balance) in profit distribution companies.
profit distribution pt:
1. tantieme: a part profit that given to management, board of comisioner member and officials as premium
2. deviden: a part profit that given to stockholder
3. reservist: a part profit that kept for capital addition companies.
4. identify specifics perkoperasian in indonesia (explanation, landasaan, principality, history, the membership, capital source, principles)
follow uu no. 25 year 1992 section 1 about perkoperasian, cooperation corporation beranggotaan cooperation law a/body person with melandas the activity based on cooperation principle all at once as people economy movement based on kinship basis. based on explanation, can be pulled conclusion as follows:
? perkoperasian everything that carry away cooperation life
? primary cooperative cooperation that founded by and membership orang- person
? secondary cooperation cooperation that foundeds by and keanggotan cooperation.
? cooperation movement keseluruan cooperation organism and activity perkoperasian has tepadu aim capainya aim with cooperation
meaningful cooperation symbol as follows:
a. chain describes coalitions steady
b. cog describes work effort then menerus from cooperation group
c. rice and cotton describes people welfare that carried on and be achieved by cooperation group
d. scales describes social justice as one of [the] base from cooperation
e. shield star describes basement idiologi cooperation five principles
f. banyan tree describes has social character and take root strong in society
g. indonesia cooperation article describes indonesia cooperation personality
h. white red primary colour describes cooperation national character indenesia
indonesia cooperation basement
• ideology basement: five principles
• structural basement that is constitution 1945
• operational basement that is uu no 25 tahun1992
• way of thinking basement that is solidarity
follow uu no 25 year 1992 section 3 cooperation aims to improve kesehjateraan member especially and society in general with come along to build bational economy order in order to realize society that progress, fair, and wealthy have a base five principles and constitution 1945.
cooperation effort principle
follow section 5 uu no 25 year 1992 about perkoperasian cooperation effort principle:
? has voluntary and opened
? management is done democratically
? bet income distribution is done fairly proportional with effort service magnitude each member
? gift replies limited service towards capital
follow drs. m. hatta at effort purpose based on on kinship basis in cooperation processing at eliminate it election delivers labourer and boss. this matter is at does by at participat labourer as owner companies to mean, work according to together to achieve aim together with menggilang individualism type.
historicly, cooperation movement in indonesia at begin sejakjaman dutch colonial. for example, in the year 1896 a patih at puwokerto, that is r. wiria atmanja establish a accomodation bank and saving and loan cooperation.
to menggembang cooperation self carries out 2 other principles, that is pendidikanperkoperasian and agreement delivers cooperation. education perkoperasian and agreement delivers cooperation is important cooperation principle in increases ability. expand member insight, and brace solidaritasdalam mewujut cooperation aim
first pioneer stand it consumption cooperation is internationalised robert owen from english and he is at conceive of consumption cooperation father. he is mempelopori stand it cooperation konsumsi”rochdale” (name a city at english) that founded by 28 unanimous textile factory labourers establishes a store to fulfill their need self
pioneer born it kopersi credit at world schulze delitzch german, establish savings bank and credit that attributed special for class entrepreneur and intermediate class. another cooperation pioneer friederich raiffeisen that establish credit cooperation for labours mempedesaan.
pioneer born it production cooperation charles fourier and louis blanc from prancis. oppressed labours by class capitalist then assembles to gather capital that used to establish to company and produce goods. company they found that be production cooperation.
development manner and cooperation construction
to develop indonesia cooperation life can be goed by as follows:
? conduct education and training perkoperasian to meningakat cooperation leadership ability
? conduct cooperation delivers cooperation so that koperasimempunyai strong competitiveness towards private effort sector and company country
? increase cognizance members and society towards benefit berkoperasi that can detenpuh pass exhibitions and information distribution lai. cooperation produces profit/profit.
? creat and develop climate and condition that push growth and permasyarakatan cooperation
? give guidance, ease, and protection towards cooperation by give to chance effort seluas-luas to cooperation
? give bantun capital towards cooperation that followed constructively bimbngan pengeloalaan cooperation effort with technology aid and pengelolaa either from government, also companies big as foster father.
a. cooperation member is owner and all at once cooperation coat user
b. cooperation membership is registerred in member list book
c. cooperation member every indonesia citizen mapu do law action ataukoperasi that fulfil rules as appointed in association of
d. cooperation can has member incredible rules, right, and duty, keanggota as dalan anggran base
e. cooperation membership is based in economy importance sameness in cooperation effort scope
f. cooperation membership adapat got and ended after membership condition as arranged in association of
g. cooperation membership can not mempindah hand
h. every has duty and equal right towards cooperation sebaimana regulated in association of
cooperation member duties:
a. mematui association of (ad)dan household estimation (art) with decision that agreed on dalamrapat anggaota
b. participate in business activity that conducted by cooperation
c. develop and take care togetherness by virtue of kinship basis.
cooperation member rights:
a. realize, declare opinion, and vote in meeting of members
b. choose and or chosen to be member pengirus or supervisor
c. ask held meeting of members follows rule in association of.
d. propose suggestion or opinion to meeting of members outdoor board either in asks also is not asked
e. make use cooperation and get service same between member fellow
f. get explanation hits cooperation development follows rule in association of
1) capital self
capital self that is capital in character underwrite risk among others:
principle deposit, that is member savings only at pay once during be cooperation member and magnitude at determine in association of and cooperation household estimation
obligatory deposit, that is member savings at pay routinely and magnitude at determine in association of and cooperation household estimation
reserve fund, that is penyisian from cooperation bet income not at share to member
gift, that is aid from third party doesn't decoy
2) loan capital
member, belong mendalamnya voluntary contribution
cooperation other and or anggotaya
bank and financial institution lai
debenture publication and debt mail lai
source lai valid
5. identify about opinion manner, aim, part, feature, benefit, rat, distribution manner shu, dissolution and cooperation effort kinds.
step -langkah cooperation opinion
1. cooperation opinion early stage
a) there has importance same
b) has aim same to get ease in effort and increase sejateraan general
c) there member candidate at least 20 person stay in work areas not too far
d) existence a figure that can to be cooperation opinion pioneer
2. cooperation opinion preparation stage
a) there prakasa/figure and cooperation founder pioneer and strong willing from society caln member merealisasikan in the form of formation commitee pendiria cooperation
b) prepare concept base association of cooperation, concept example association of can be asked from local cooperation departement.
c) after ingredients prepare, cooperation opinion commitee invites member candidate a group the person sekurang undercommunication 20 person, local government caretakers and local cooperation chief. in invitation determined place, meeting time, and agenda of meeting composition.
3. cooperation opinion meeting execution
in cooperation opinion meeting execution, minimal must discuss agenda as follows.
a) cooperation opinion background
b) purpose and cooperation opinion aim
c) ask cooperation opinion sanctions to meeting participants
d) formulation and explanation association of and cooperation household estimation. in association of sekurang undercommunication makes matters, like founder checklist, name and position place, purpose and effort area aim, rule menganai membership, meeting of members, management, capitalization, duration stand it, bet income distribution, and hit sanctions.
e) people who stipulating signings cooperation bill of establishment
f) election and board appointment and cooperation supervisor
4. reporting stage and cooperation corporate body submission
after cooperation opinion meeting finished, penggurus has duty to menindaklanjuti meeting decision result with do steps as follows:
a) make member list book and board list book
b) make report in writing about cooperation opinion meeting to local government
c) make and apply penggakuan cooperation corporate body to local cooperation departement office, usually reside in capital regency/ municipality. request must as follows
1) cooperation bill of establishment (double 2)
2) cooperation formation agenda of meeting message quotation that hold meeting participants total, total anggata and name at give authority to signing cooperation corporate body deed
3) cooperation beginning balance
a) follow the main effort
• consumption cooperation: cooperation with a purpose to predominantly prepare goods for member so that member gets goods that wanted at the price of achievable
• saving and loan credit/cooperation cooperation: cooperation the effort activity conducts saving and loan to the members that aim to help members repairs economy conditon by maminjamuang with light flower.
• production cooperation: cooperation the effort to menhasil goods and service together.
b) cooperation follows the effort field
? agriculture cooperation: that is cooperation that active in agriculture, like palawija, rice field agriculture and arable land
? husbandry cooperation: that is cooperation that move membidang husbandry seprti cow husbandry, chicken, etc
? estate cooperation: cooperation that move in estate area effort field.
? fisherman cooperation: that is cooperation the member fishermans. aim helps fishermans fulfils need and help to canalize the capture result fish
? industrial cooperation: cooperation little industrial the member
? service cooperation: cooperation to give service activities to the member likes transport cooperation and insurence cooperation
c) cooperation follows the effort unit:
? cooperation completely effort (multy purpose cooperative) that is cooperation that has more than one effort area, for example kud and ksu
? cooperation one effort kind (single purpose cooperative) cooperation that has one credit cooperation for example effort kind and consumption cooperation.
d) follow the stage:
? primary cooperative: cooperation that have as member person a. minimal member total 20 person. follow cooperation lowest tingkata. example kud,
? secondary cooperation: cooperation cooperation corporate body the member. secondary cooperation is divided to be 3 that is:
cooperation centre: be cooperation that founded at least 5 cooperations usually. the position level at municipality or regency. example: regency village unit cooperation centre bandung
cooperation federation: be cooperation that founded sekuramh-kurang 3 cooperation centres. level keduduka at provinsi example: republic of indonesia official cooperation federation (gkpri) provinsi central java
cooperation mother: be cooperation sekurang-kurangya have as member 3 cooperation federations. level keduduka at country city mother or national level. example: inkud (village unit cooperation mother)
rightful claimant breakups cooperation:
a. meeting of members decision
b. government, if:
1) cooperation unconstitutionals operative
2) the activity opposes public interest
3) the alive continuance can not supposed again
annual meeting of members (rat)
meeting of members is highest power in cooperation and done most a little 1 time in one year. meeting of members decides:
a. association of
b. general policy at organization area, management and cooperation effort
c. election, appointment, board stoppage and supervisor
d. work plan, income cost estimate and cooperation expense, with financial statement ratification
e. ratification and board responsibility in the task execution
f. bet income distribution
g. merging, fusion, distribution and cooperation dissolution
bet income (shu)
shu be cooperation income that got in one year book reduceds with cost, waning and another duty belongs tax in year book concerned.
distribution example shu:
in village unit cooperation (kud) “maju sejahtera” calculation shu year walk rp 30.000.000, principle deposit total and obligatory member rp 80.000.000, sale turnover during 1 year rp 100.000.000. shu mengantaranya allocated 20 % for savings service and 25 % for purchasing service. nn. tya ariesta as that cooperation member has principle deposit rp 100.000 and obligatory deposit rp 300.000. during 1 year he has shopped mengoperasi that in the amount rp 500.000. part shu that accepted nn. tya ariesta ….
savings service 20% x 30.000.000 = 6.000.000
purchasing service 25% x 30.000.000 = 7.500.000
shu that accepted nn. tya ariesta:
shu = 30.000 + 37.500
appropriate uu number 25 year 1992 about perkoperasian, formation condition is regulated in chapter iv, section 6, 7, 8.
1. primary cooperative is formed by at least 20 (two puluh) person. (paragraph 6).
this rules is meant to watch over effort elegibility and cooperation life. orang-seorang cooperation shaper them that fulfil membership rules and has economy importance same.
2. while secondary cooperation is formed by at least 3 (three) cooperations (paragraph 6).
3. cooperation formation is done with bill of establishment that hold ad (paragraph 7).
4. cooperation office address be clear (paragraph 7).
contents association of, explained in section 8, at least regulate 10 rules:
a. founder checklist;
b. name and position place;
c. purpose and aim with effort area;
d. rule hits membership;
e. rule hits meeting of members;
f. rule hits management;
g. rule hits capitalization;
h. rule hits duration stand it;
i. rule hits bet income distribution;
j. rule hits sanction.
corporate body status
cooperation gets corporate body status after bill of establishment menyahkan by government (paragraph 9)
a. manner gets corporate body status, founders must submit in writing with be espoused bill of establishment.
b. has time at longest 3 months since get request is written to decide to get or averse opinion request.
when is request accepted so bill of establishment ratification memumkan in official gazette ri.
when will request will be be aversed so founder will get written notice that espoused covering denunciateds denial.
when want to submit to repeat after aversed, founder can submit to return after one month since get denial notification.
towards this reintroducing, has time 1 (one) month since get submission to give decision.